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RESEARCH METHODS
The overall research design is intended to address the main research questions
listed above through a series of steps aimed at achieving the following primary
research objectives:
_ To characterise the constituent elements of city knowledge and identify the
developement authority’s smart city proposals.
_ To determine the relevance, feasibility, usefulness and value in the creation
and maintenance of ICT developments alongside the more generic infrastructure
components of a city such as transportation, public spaces, etc.
_ To identify the practical methods, the information technologies and the organisational
strategies that may be widely adoptable by public and government to collect,
organise and apply the city knowledge to urban planning and management.
_ To assess not only whether this knowledge can be advantageous in satisfying
the ongoing requirements of day-to-day city operations, but also whether it can
be used as a tool for the developmental decisions, plans, policies and actions that
in turn will benefit urban structure of the city.
Data was also collected in the form of interviews. I used purposive sampling when
selecting my interviewees because of the limited access and the restricted population
qualified to answer in-depth questions about government and economic
functions.

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In total, I interviewed seven individuals between October 2015 and July 2016.
During my trip to India in winter, I conducted two interviews in Bhopal, Madhya
Pradesh, the State Capital, with Housing development authorities. The rest were
in Indore with local urban planners and architects. Most of the interviews were
done by phone from United Kingdom as the some of the interviewees were not
able to schedule it during my short visit to India.
Throughout the data collection process during the tour, I took field notes and
photographs of existing problems in the city and responses of local people in that
context.
As one of the core principles of the smart city is open data, gaining access to
these government documents via online sources was not difficult. I used these
documents to classify and compare the types of smart city initiatives pursued by
several cities in India. When put in dialogue with prior academic research, these
publications help distinguish between the theoretical possibilities and practical
effects of smart city implementation.
To achieve the aim of the research, the author will further depend on the relavent
literature to detect the current definitions that are suggested by many scholars to
develop the definition of Smart city and to clarify the goals and benefits of smart
cities.

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In his second solution, Tibbald highlights the often discussed issue of lack of consideration
for users in urban planning. Urban areas exist for human beings. They
do not exist for cars or Lorries or big constructional projects. We need to find
ways to give our urban areas this human quality or scale (Tibbalds F., 2001)
Streets are the key components of the urban structure and successful urban design
calls for maintaining their integrity and scale as a whole. It should be made
sure that pedestrian movement is well defined and unobstructed through the
lanes and between the buildings.
A conscious effort is also required to avoid any dead frontages that kill the exuberance
of space, to utilise any awkward leftover niches and incorporate public
art into the realms. To design pleasant environment for citizens, careful consideration
of micro-climate, street level adjustment and proper placement of storey
high buildings that positively add to the overall cityscape is essential. Pedestrian
freedom and consequently, pedestrian safety and health is often unabashedly
surrendered for blocky high rise structures and appalling vehicular traffic. Tibbald
like many others urbanist talks about the ways to create a pedestrian and cyclist
friendly city.
Successful street level urban environments are permeable to pedestrians, that
is, they permit or encourage pedestrians to move about in a variety of directions
(Tibbalds F., 2001). To ferment and maintain excitement, liveliness and interest
among dwellers it is important to induce fine network of movement, a partial
labyrinth that gives variety, choice, and deliberate redundancy. This involves allowing
an unobstructed view through and between buildings and any other barriers
to desire-lines. Passages, arcades, and courtyards allowing people to pass
through them are interesting ways to deal with such situation.